[8] Cats have retractile claws, slender muscular bodies and strong flexible forelimbs. Caracal includes the C. caracal (gazelle cat). [34] Panthera blytheae is the oldest known pantherine cat dated to the late Messinian to early Zanclean ages about 5.95 to 4.1 million years ago. © 2001-2020 BiologyOnline. They have more rod cells than humans. Felids vary in size; the black footed cat (the smallest) has a head-body length of 36.7 to 43.3 cm and the tiger (the largest) has a body length of up to 330 cm. They migrated to Africa, Europe and the Americas in the course of at least 10 migration waves during the past ~11 million years. [35] Panthera palaeosinensis from North China probably dates to the Late Miocene or Early Pliocene. Felidae is comprised of two subfamilies: Pantherinae (big cats) and Felinae. Genera see Taxonomy. The genus Felis diverged from the Felidae around 6–7 million years ago. Results of phylogenetic research confirm that the wild Felis species evolved through sympatric or parapatric speciation, whereas the domestic cat evolved through artificial selection. All members of the cat family have the following characteristics in common: The colour, length and density of their fur is very diverse. ", "The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: a genetic assessment", "Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats", "Oldest Known Pantherine Skull and Evolution of the Tiger", "Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Felidae using 16S rRNA and NADH-5 mitochondrial genes", "Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae)", "How the leopard got its spots: a phylogenetic view of the evolution of felid coat patterns", "Molecular Evidence for Species-Level Distinctions in Clouded Leopards", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T15951A107265605.en, "Notice sur la classification multisériale des Carnivores, spécialement des Félidés, et les études de zoologie générale qui s'y rattachent", "Descriptions of two species of the genus, "Descriptions of some new genera and fifty unrecorded species of Mammalia". [13] Those living in tropical and hot climate zones have short fur. It is comprised of two divisions that in the end, the resulting.. Plants protect themselves by releasing hydrogen peroxide to fight against fungal invasion. They have large eyes with binocular vision. Metailurus lived in Africa and Eurasia about 8 to 6 million years ago. Proailurus is the oldest known cat that occurred after the Eocene–Oligocene extinction event about 33.9 million years ago; fossil remains were excavated in France and Mongolia's Hsanda Gol Formation. noun [11], The first cats emerged during the Oligocene about 25 million years ago, with the appearance of Proailurus and Pseudaelurus. Today, the living Felidae are divided in two subfamilies: the Pantherinae and Felinae, with the Acinonychinae subsumed into the latter. [30], In the Early or Middle Miocene, the sabre-toothed Machairodontinae evolved in Africa and migrated northwards in the Late Miocene. Low sea levels, interglacial and glacial periods facilitated these migrations.

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