Kang Youwei, a young and active scholar, who had similar concerns about China as Guangxu did, attracted the emperor's attention. Tensions with the Qing government had been increasing since the New Policies were implemented, which were seen by Mongolian society as a threat to their way of life, and the Emperor took this opportunity to restore Chinese sovereignty in Mongolia. When Guangxu’s imperial tutor Weng Tonghe supported Kang’s advocacies in early 1898, Guangxu became more eager to pursue the new reforms. These included most notably creating a modern education system, sending members of the Imperial Family to study abroad, reforming the government from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional one, setting up an elected National Assembly, creating a modern conscript army trained and equipped to European standards, restructuring the government, and industrializing the country through modern capitalism. The Guangxu Emperor was the eleventh emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China. Zaitian was the second son of Yixuan (Prince Chun), and his primary spouse Yehenara Wanzhen, a younger sister of Empress Dowager Cixi. The vast majority elected were constitutional monarchists with a few crypto-revolutionaries and they turned the assemblies into hotbeds of dissent. Many people considered the reforms too little and continued to advocate to overthrow the Qing despite the progress that was made. It is worth noting that the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals is the only charity organization in Hong Kong that has been awarded an imperial plaque by Emperor Guangxu. Negotiations with the Chinese government in 1898 led to Germany being granted a 99-year lease on the territory along with special priveleges, and the same thing was shortly later done in other parts of the empire with Great Britain, France, Russia, and Japan. It has been during his short period of power, for the first time in 4000 years, that China has experienced the privilege of an honest, patriotic ruler; a man without a desire for his personal self, caring only for the welfare of his subjects. During the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, foreign minister Cao Rulin promised all of Germany's former colonies in Shandong, but this was rejected by the Western powers that allowed Japan to keep them. On 8 May 1911 the Grand Council was replaced by an Imperial Cabinet, headed by Prince Qing, with the ministers divided in half between Manchus and Han. By August most of the countryside in Zhili was secure and foreign troops agreed to remain at the port in Tianjin to not provoke any further violence, as the Guangxu Emperor agreed to protect all foreign citizens in China. Despite the resistance in Beijing, the deal was finalized on 7 September 1901 and did not involve any reparations payments by China, with the Western powers granting the country lenient terms.
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