Stalin however admired how he strengthened the state, and wartime, diplomacy, industry, higher education, and government administration. [22] The Embassy next went to Leipzig, Dresden, Prague and Vienna. [45] Alexei's mother Eudoxia had also been punished; she was dragged from her home and tried on false charges of adultery. (Bushkovitch points out that evidence for this timeline is shaky.) [8] Peter, however, lacked the overall proportional heft and bulk generally found in a man that size. Peter's visit was cut short in 1698, when he was forced to rush home by a rebellion of the Streltsy. Though relatively pleased with her husband at first, Charlotte soon found herself lonely and isolated, complaining in letters of Alexei’s emotional unavailability and excessive drinking. ", Brown, Peter B. During his youth, Peter befriended Patrick Gordon, Franz Lefort and several other foreigners in Russian service and was a frequent guest in Moscow's German Quarter, where he met his Dutch mistress Anna Mons. All Rights Reserved. Peter made a temporary peace with the Ottoman Empire that allowed him to keep the captured fort of Azov, and turned his attention to Russian maritime supremacy. Peter even took action against his ex-wife, Eudoxia, confining her to a second, more remote convent and brutally torturing to death her lover. [49] Slavophiles in mid-19th century deplored Peter's westernization of Russia. He had three children with his first wife, Eudoxia: Alexei, Alexander, and Pavel. [14], As part of his reforms, Peter started an industrialization effort that was slow but eventually successful. Peter then demanded that Alexei name his accomplices, which led to the torture of dozens of the tsarevich’s associates. As part of an agreement with Poland that ceded Kiev to Russia, Peter was forced to wage war against the Crimean Khan and against the Khan's overlord, the Ottoman Sultan. After the battle, Charles XII decided to concentrate his forces against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, which gave Peter time to reorganize the Russian army. [4] Throughout this period, the government was largely run by Artamon Matveev, an enlightened friend of Alexis, the political head of the Naryshkin family and one of Peter's greatest childhood benefactors. Jan van der Heyden, the inventor of the fire hose, received Peter, who was keen to learn and pass on his knowledge to his countrymen. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library. In the conflict, the forces of Charles XII, rather than employ a slow methodical siege, attacked immediately using a blinding snowstorm to their advantage. In 1721, the Treaty of Nystad ended the Great Northern War. Like many children of European monarchs, Alexei didn’t often see his father, who spent much of his reign away fighting the Ottomans and Swedes and traveling around Western Europe. Each college consisted of a president, a vice-president, a number of councilors and assessors, and a procurator. Peter was deeply religious, being brought up in the Russian Orthodox faith, but he had low regard for the Church hierarchy, which he kept under tight governmental control. ", Waugh, Daniel Clarke. Peter returned to Moscow in November 1695 and began building a large navy. But on the other hand, he felt obligated to respond as Alexei’s brother-in-law and was no fan of Peter. To improve his nation's position on the seas, Peter sought to gain more maritime outlets. When remodeling his the castle put the throne behind the bar; In 1700, when the office fell vacant, Peter refused to name a replacement, allowing the Patriarch's Coadjutor (or deputy) to discharge the duties of the office. What made Peter the Great an absolute monarch? In the summer of 1695 Peter organized the Azov campaigns to take the fortress, but his attempts ended in failure. In 1721, Peter followed the advice of Theophan Prokopovich in designing the Holy Synod as a council of ten clergymen. This throne can be seen in the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow. Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." Pyotr Pyerviy, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj]) or Pyotr Alekseevich (Russian: Пётр Алексе́евич, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr ɐlʲɪˈksʲejɪvʲɪtɕ]; 9 June [O.S. He spoke with Augustus II the Strong and Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.[21]. But even those royals might have been aghast at the actions of Russian czar Peter the Great, who in 1718 had his eldest son tortured to death for allegedly conspiring against him. In 1722, Peter created a new order of precedence known as the Table of Ranks. Надписи вокруг печати. ", Cracraft, James. All rights reserved. Peter knew that Russia could not face the Ottoman Empire alone. Services, Peter the Great & the Westernization of Russia: Facts & History, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. It was named after his patron saint Saint Peter. [33] Decisions depended on the majority vote. Alexei’s mother, Eudoxia, was both pious and conservative, and her marriage to Peter proved rocky. In 1698, Peter sent a delegation to Malta, under boyar Boris Sheremetev, to observe the training and abilities of the Knights of Malta and their fleet. These included three sons named Pavel and three sons named Peter, all of whom died in infancy. On the one hand, Charles VI had no wish to provoke a fight with Russia. The taxes on land and on households were payable only by individuals who owned property or maintained families; the new head taxes, however, were payable by serfs and paupers. © copyright 2003-2020 Voltaire's 1759 biography gave 18th-century Russians a man of the Enlightenment, while Alexander Pushkin's "The Bronze Horseman" poem of 1833 gave a powerful romantic image of a creator-god. The rebellion was easily crushed before Peter returned home from England; of the Tsar's troops, only one was killed. Many monarchs throughout history have killed family members. Peter implemented sweeping reforms aimed at modernizing Russia. Peter The Great's children: Peter The Great's son was Alexis Petrovich Romanov, Tsarevich of Russia Peter The Great's son was Alexander Petrovich Romanov Peter The Great's daughter was Katherine Petrovna Romanov Peter The Great's daughter was Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna Of Russia Peter The Great's daughter was Tsarina Elizabeta Of Russia Peter The Great's daughter was Marie Petrovna Romanov Peter The Great's daughter was Margaret Petrovna Romanov … Соответствие их с государевым титулом. Peter married twice and had 11 children, many of whom died in infancy. Traditionally, the years were reckoned from the purported creation of the World, but after Peter's reforms, they were to be counted from the birth of Christ. He lined the walls with vodka, rum, and 40 kinds of beers; Following several defeats, Polish King Augustus II the Strong abdicated in 1706. In turn, Russia paid two million Riksdaler and surrendered most of Finland. With his second wife,... See full answer below. Peter's other half-brother, Ivan V of Russia, was next in line for the throne, but he was chronically ill and of infirm mind. Peter preferred to rely on groups of individuals who would keep check on one another. This icy water rescue is said to have exacerbated Peter's bladder problems and caused his death. [58][59] They include the poems The Bronze Horseman, Poltava and the unfinished novel The Moor of Peter the Great, all by Alexander Pushkin. Peter the Great. The former dealt with The Bronze Horseman, an equestrian statue raised in Peter's honour. While the Poles fought the Swedes, Peter founded the city of Saint Petersburg in 1703, in Ingermanland (a province of the Swedish Empire that he had captured). “Austria is still a major power in the 18th century,” Bushkovitch says, “and they don’t like the fact that Peter, by defeating the Swedes and by allying with the Danes and Prussians, has become a factor in the politics of northern Germany.”. Meanwhile, still sore over his mother’s banishment, Alexei did not attend the 1712 wedding of Peter and his second wife, Catherine. He sought to acquire control of the Baltic Sea, which had been taken by the Swedish Empire a half-century earlier. At this point, Alexei apparently still hoped for a quiet life with Afrosina in the countryside. Peter, warned by others from the Streltsy, escaped in the middle of the night to the impenetrable monastery of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra; there he slowly gathered adherents who perceived he would win the power struggle. This, plus the interval of time between these actions and Peter's death seems to preclude any direct link. In Russian Empire - Russian Empire - Peter’s immediate successors: Peter met with opposition in his own family: his son Alexis grew up under the influence of the clergy and obviously disapproved of Peter’s reform. Pyotr Velikiy, IPA: [ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj]), Peter I (Russian: Пётр Первый, tr. Bookish, timid and far less physically imposing than Peter, the tsarevich constantly complained of ill health and is said to have once purposely injured his hand rather than submit to one of his father’s demands. He used the wedding in order to launch his new capital, St Petersburg, where he had already ordered building projects of westernized palaces and buildings. Yet these plans never got off the ground. The sentence could be carried out only with Peter's signed authorization, and Alexei died in prison, as Peter hesitated before making the decision.

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